At the heart of this case is Florida Bar ethics Rule 4-1.8(c), which prohibits Florida lawyers from soliciting “substantial” gifts from their clients (“lunch on me” is OK) or drafting wills, trusts, deeds, etc. for their clients effectuating any such gift.
The common law rule in Florida is that gifts made to lawyers in violation of Rule 4-1.8(c) aren’t per se void, but they do trigger a rebuttable presumption of undue influence by the lawyer. If the lawyer can’t overcome this evidentiary hurdle, the gift is void. How do I know this? Because a couple of years ago I read what I consider to be one of the most thoughtful and scholarly probate-court orders I’ve ever come across in my career. The order, authored by Pinellas Circuit Judge Lauren Laughlin and later affirmed on a “PCA” basis by the 2d DCA in Carey v. Rocke, 18 So.3d 1266 (Fla. 2d DCA October 23, 2009), does a fantastic job of dissecting the intersection of Florida law and professional ethics in a will contest involving a possible Rule 4-1.8(c) violation. Judge Laughlin’s order should be required reading for anyone involved in a case where a will contest involves a possible Rule 4-1.8(c) violation. Click here for a copy of Judge Laughlin’s order and click here for my write up of the case.
Agee v. Brown, — So.3d —-, 2011 WL 5554833 (Fla. 4th DCA Nov 16, 2011):
At issue in the linked-to case above was a will and deed drafted by a lawyer in violation of Rule 4-1.8(c). The trial court ruled the will, and by implication the deed, were per se void as contrary to public policy. Not surprisingly, the 4th DCA reversed. Here’s the crux of their analysis:
Jon and Susan Agee appeal the trial court’s order dismissing their petition to revoke probate of the last will of Herbert G. Birck based on a lack of standing. The trial court had found that the prior will upon which the Agees based their standing was void as contrary to public policy because Mr. Agee, in violation of the Rules Regulating The Florida Bar, had drafted that earlier will in which he and his wife were left a substantial bequest. The Florida Probate Code, however, does not provide for such an automatic exclusion. Because we conclude that the Agees have standing under a prior will to petition for the revocation of the decedent’s last will, we reverse and remand for further proceedings.
. . .
In support of his position that a bequest to a drafting attorney must be deemed void as contrary to public policy, Brown argues that “[p]ublic policy demands protection of the public and the instilling of confidence in the legal profession.” The best way to protect the public from unethical attorneys in the drafting of wills, however, is entirely within the province of the Florida Legislature. The current statutory framework, contrary to Brown’s implication, does contain some protections. See, e.g., § 732.5165, Fla. Stat. (2009) (“A will is void if the execution is procured by fraud, duress, mistake, or undue influence.”); § 733.107(2), Fla. Stat. (2009) (“The presumption of undue influence implements public policy against abuse of fiduciary or confidential relationships and is therefore a presumption shifting the burden of proof….”).
. . .
To the extent that the trial court agreed . . . that the deed drafted by Mr. Agee which transferred the remainder interest in an enhanced life estate to him and his wife was void as against public policy, we note that, just as with devises, the fact that Mr. Agee drafted the deed does not make the deed void per se, but rather raises a rebuttable presumption of undue influence. See Fogel v. Swann, 523 So.2d 1227, 1229 (Fla. 3d DCA 1988).
What this case and the 2d DCA’s Carey case demonstrate is that there’s a right way and a wrong way for clients to make substantial gifts to their lawyers. The wrong way opens the door for litigation and possibly frustrating a client’s legitimate testamentary wishes. The right way makes sure the client isn’t the victim of undue influence, and just as importantly, makes it much less likely the estate will find itself embroiled in costly litigation. So what’s the right way? The Commentary to Rule 4-1.8(c) provides the following road map:
A lawyer may accept a gift from a client, if the transaction meets general standards of fairness and if the lawyer does not prepare the instrument bestowing the gift. For example, a simple gift such as a present given at a holiday or as a token of appreciation is permitted. If a client offers the lawyer a more substantial gift, subdivision (c) does not prohibit the lawyer from accepting it, although such a gift may be voidable by the client under the doctrine of undue influence, which treats client gifts as presumptively fraudulent. If effectuation of a substantial gift requires preparing a legal instrument such as a will or conveyance, however, the client should have the detached advice that another lawyer can provide and the lawyer should advise the client to seek advice of independent counsel. Subdivision (c) recognizes an exception where the client is related by blood or marriage to the donee or the gift is not substantial.
R. Regulating Fla. Bar 4-1.8, Comment
“Gifts to Lawyers.”
In terms of providing guidance for clients who for whatever reason legitimately want to write their lawyers into their wills, California has actually codified (and perhaps beefed up) the litigation-shield contained in the Commentary to our ethics Rule 4-1.8(c) by including it in its probate code. See Cal. Prob.C. §§21350-21356. For a comprehensive list of cases across the country dealing with some version of Rule 4-1.8(c), see ACTEC’s Commentary on MRPC 1.8.
Bottom line, client gifts to lawyers are not illegal, but they are freighted with all sorts of baggage and litigation risks. Florida law and our ethics rules provide solid guidance for effectuating these gifts the right way. Sadly, these suggestions were apparently not followed in this case.